Yunus Rajabiy Berta Davydova Viktor Uspensky Mukarram Turhunboeva
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Yunus Rajabiy

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Berta Davydova

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Viktor Uspensky

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Mukarram Turhunboeva

ARTICLE: Characteristic Features of the Oral Tradition and Dostons as Intangible Cultural Heritage of Central Asia

The artistic world of the traditional culture of the peoples of Central Asia contains timeless and concrete historical content. At present stage of development of science there is a need to study the uniqueness of artistic creativity of the peoples of the region, it is important for an objective reconstruction of the overall picture of the evolution of the art of understanding the world. 

The dynamics of the historical and social transformations can not be studied without a genuine understanding of the culture of integrity, understanding of the laws of artistic culture, its context in a particular socio-historical era.

Intangible cultural heritage of the peoples of Central Asia is a great value. That's it for centuries not only sanded perfect specimens of art of the peoples, but are tested and the most effective approaches to the solution of many creative problems - such as the birth of the new challenges in the field of figurative style, the problems plaguing the development of genres, problems of evolution, during which selected the best ways to protect, save, transfer and change of initial signs of any artistic phenomenon.

On the concept of "oral tradition"

Particular attention must be the question of stereotypes understanding the place and role of the traditional fine arts. Traditional culture is considered by us as a system of relations linking a wide variety of shapes, forms, genres and traditions, in the aggregate which are implemented holistically different types of culture (music, dance, art-applied, folk entertainment and others.)

Intangible cultural heritage (oral-poetic, musical and drama, dance and entertainment, ritual and festive, artistic and applied) - is home to the traditional ethnic spiritual philosophical and aesthetic culture, which reflects his mentality that has developed as a result of centuries of collective creativity through oral communication, which manifests itself in an infinite multiplicity of individual personal goals.

Oral tradition – very wide concept

Modern linguistics highlights the language of oral communication, giving it a special place in their systematic description of the language situation. After all, the system-structural method, which is unthinkable today convincing analysis of a variety of manifestations of traditional culture, and the semiotic approach, which treats the verbal or musical language as a special case of broadly understood sign systems, rooted in structural linguistics, that is, the language is taught as an integrated system, which helps to reveal the phenomena being studied. Oral nature, generally recognized as a major property that constitute folk art, contrasts his written culture.

Language oral tradition appears as a specific language, hence the phenomena represented, for example, the ability of media folk epic tradition, reproducing from memory hundreds of thousands of lines of poetry complex poetic text, not to mention the musical melodies - Kyrgyz manas, Uzbek and Turkmen bakhshi, Kazakh and Karakalpak zhyrau. The same can be said about the makom traditions of art, for example, the Uzbek-Tajik "Shashmaqom" Uighur Mukam or Azerbayzhani mugham performers which are stored in the memory not only a plentiful amount of the poetic text, but many melodies, rhythms and Usul, shapes works , as well as original culmination (Auja) in the high register. That is, it is not about memorizing the serial line of text that has already been observed during the degeneration of the epic tradition (verbatim memorization with the presence of texts written by). A classic example - version of the heroic epic "Alpamysh" ("Alpamys"), which today has become a memorization canonized text, in a kind of competition on rote memory capacity; or the epics of the epic "Gorogly" ("Gorogly", "Koroglu", "Gurugli"), which is now played mainly in book publication and not only in the relatively large fragments.

The main field of nucleation and ripening of many original forms, types and genres of the intangible cultural heritage of oral folklore becomes a layer of traditional culture, which is manifested in the works of folk singers and musicians, artists and epic of makom art virtuoso instrumentalists, craftsmen. Sociocultural stratigraphy modern, for example, musical life is extremely flexible: on the one hand, the degradation of orally-professional creativity of their return to the folk-culture topsoil or amateur performances; and on the other, on the contrary, professional musicians writing orientation seek to understand the rules of interpretation of music-making by the canons of traditional culture (case in point, the practice of folk ensembles with professional creative associations). Hence, two types of functional activity: the first - an anonymous, impersonal creative folk type; the second - the author personally-type work. Based on this classification there is the most natural sequence of signs of oral tradition: the social conditions - psychological awareness - artistic result. As a crucial link in the chain performs a moment of recognition. Artistic level only definitively establishes the progress - to the intangible cultural heritage.

On retention, transfer and development of traditions

In these given areas of the intangible cultural heritage evolved various principles of artistic interpretation, there were traditional schools skill training system "Ustoz (ustod, halypa) -shogird" (master-disciple) - a kind of school of discipleship, historical and theoretical settings related to the artistic and cosmological artistic and ethical canons and norms, prominent expression of socio-historical experience of the peoples of Central Asia. And in the traditional culture of the region Oral transmission of creative styles, knowledge and skills, manners of performance, playing musical instruments, the development of poetic texts and their laws had not only direct, but also make an indirect connection, when a student, or the successor of a master Ustoz formed under the influence of the school skill after his death. Due to such Intermediary succession to extend (or longer) link in the chain, and thus, reveal a clearer picture of life of a particular tradition, a retrospective chart a number of direct and Intermediary links that existed between master and disciple.

In the traditional cultures of the peoples of Central Asia, there are quite took shape School for the Performing and craft skills that transmit over many generations verbal music, entertainment and artistic traditions with the help of an elaborate system, in modern language teaching methods in which you can discover all the features of the existing pedagogical process "Ustoz-shogird" (master-disciple), starting from a coherent system of theoretical knowledge (developed in the medieval "Treatise on Music" statutes "Risola") to specific technical controls that allow to master the techniques of singing or playing a musical instrument, vocabulary and verbal laws of poetry, raw materials and technological complexities crafts, their knowledge and skills of all the processes of manufacture of the product. For example, the technique of playing dutar lute or kobuz for storyteller - Bakhshi or zhyrau was so sophisticated, and the importance of music in the eyes of society so high that students may spend a year on the acquisition of only one performing virtuoso technique. Traditional channel of transfer of skills from teacher to student, master (Ustoz) transmits its accumulated knowledge of the student fund, as they say, "at their fingertips" by showing off their skills. As a rule, this knowledge and method for transmitting envelops mystery. The student had to observe the canons, but at the same condition for admission to the masters class was to create a masterpiece - what to B has not been able to do to anyone. Aspiring musician or Bakhshi many years spent in daily communication with their teacher before received a blessing from him - fotiha or stalemate - unwritten equivalent official "certificate", which gives the right to an independent creative and performing activities.

For example, gradual development of traditional epic tales from the master-Bakhshi has following stages: early stage - learning to play a musical instrument, mastering poetical term (tirma) or songs, singing some further term or epic songs. Middle stage - initiation into the mysteries of doston performance, the development of manners and style of singing, story-the story and the music and poetic text of a particular Doston. Trainee becomes a constant companion wizard in his speeches to the audience during weddings, festive events, celebrations in the palace or nobles. He accompanied his master, sometimes performed simple term, and master Ustoz performed entirely whole Doston: while the disciple becomes like an imitator of his master. The duration of this phase depended on the skills and abilities of the student, so as to receive a blessing from the master (fotiha or pata), giving the right to independent action as Bakhshi-dostonchi, he had to know by heart and be able to perform a few dostons. Mature stage - independent development of the repertoire, increase of performance, independent creative and performing activities at the same time he became a partner of his master teacher. Executor master was evaluated by a skilled fulfillment of the rules when it was converted to their free mastering. It was something similar to owning a musical instrument, its the finest technical capabilities.

Doston as an element of intangible cultural heritage

Arts epic tales - Doston, a leader in the traditional culture of the peoples of Central Asia, has its roots in the distant past. Its origin and development, due to artistic and aesthetic needs of the listening masses, was inextricably linked with the ethnogenesis, history and spiritual culture of the peoples of the region. In dostons most clearly and comprehensively reflect the history of the people, their way of life, the characteristics of the psychology and perception of the world. His sorrows and joys, worries and anxieties, the dreams and aspirations, moral and humanistic views and bright dreams of a happy future, his struggle for the liberation of his people, the motherland. Hence the main theme dostons patriotic and humanistic. Formed on the basis of a rich variety of genres of folk music and poetry and developing in close collaboration with the folk and, to a certain extent, the classical poetry of the East, the art of epic storytellers always had a democratic character and serve the interests of the masses. The imaginative and musically poetic against traditional epics, as well as its leading musical and poetic genre term (tirma), distinguished by the depth of imaginary and emotional content that was delivered and deliver even today a true delight listeners. This can explain the exceptional vitality of arts epic storytellers, Bakhshi and special people's love for him, which he carefully carried through the centuries to the present day. Bakhshi art for centuries performed as a socio-historical and art-aesthetic function.

Performing features of dostons

The word "Bakhshi" (Bagsha, Bakshi backs, bakhsi) occurs in the language of many nations. However, sources indicate that it is set in different periods of the history of different nations was ambiguous (shaman, wizard, sorcerer, a Buddhist monk, soothsayer, witch doctor, healer, spiritual rank, secretary, treasurer). Even in the thirteenth century, Marco Polo wrote about the witch doctors, sorcerers, who served at the court of the Mongol Khan and they were called Bakhshi. V.Bartold and A.Samoylovich believe that the word "Bakhshi" in Turkic-speaking and Iranian peoples was used in the sense of "teacher." "Bakhshi" called court physicians of the Mongols, Turkic scribes in the state Tamerlane, high-ranking officials in charge reporting of military units in the State of Babur; the people began to call the shaman witch, cast out evil spirits with his magical singing and playing musical instruments. And when shamanism was supplanted by Islam, the word "Bakhshi" came to mean a folk singer, musician and storyteller, who played in the cultural history of the peoples of Central Asia and the role of guardian of the creator of the national epic.

Author: Dr. Rustambek Abdullaev, professor of the Uzbekistan State Conservatory

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